Wei Xu

Contact Information

(608) 265-5540, (608) 262-9834
7459 WI Institutes for Medical Research


BS, 1991, Chemistry, Beijing University, China
MS, 1994, Biophysics, Institute of Biophysics, Beijing, China
PhD, 1999, Biochemistry, University of Iowa
Postdoctoral Research, The Salk Institute for Biological Studies, La Jolla, CA


Professor of Oncology
Marian A. Messerschmidt Professor of Cancer Research
Genetics Program Co-Leader , UW Carbone Cancer Center


My laboratory is focused on the transcriptional regulation of estrogen receptor (ER) signaling pathways by nuclear receptor co-factors. We identified a natural plant product that significantly decreased ERa but increased ERb stability. Via distinct mechanism from the existing agents for endocrine therapy, this compound also significantly promoted degradation of mutant ERa that is found in ~25% of patients with metastatic ERa-positive breast cancers.  Biological functions of these estrogenic compounds have been investigated in cell-based and breast cancer mouse models. The bioactive derivatives may be developed as novel agents for treating metastatic, endocrine-resistant breast cancers caused by ERa mutations. Furthermore, we investigated the crosstalk between ERa pathways and other growth factors (e.g., HER2) and kinase networks, as these mechanisms account for the intrinsic or acquired endocrine resistance.

The second focus of our lab is to elucidate epigenetic regulation of cell signaling and transcription by CARM1-mediated methylation of histone and non-histone substrates, and to reveal how arginine methylation contributes to diverse biological functions. Global profiling of CARM1 substrates identified over 130 bona fide CARM1 protein substrates. We have shown that methylation of discreate cancer-relevant substrates regulates distinct hallmarks of cancer. The study of MED12 methylation by CARM1 in regulating chemosensitivity and BAF155 methylation in promoting metastasis are funded by two NIH R01. BAF155 methylation drives cancer metastasis, providing the foundation for employing CARM1 inhibitors in cancer therapy. Overall, our systematic work elucidates mechanistic foundations of cancer dependencies on aberrant epigenetic programs and exploits this vulnerability to develop novel therapies.

Honors and Awards

  • Shaw Scientist Award, 2008
  • DOD ERA of HOPE Scholar, 2010
  • Society of Toxicology Achievement Award, 2013
  • Villas Distinguished Achievement Professor, University of Wisconsin, 2014
  • Romnes Faculty Fellowship, University of Wisconsin, 2016
  • Marian A. Messerschmidt Professorship, 2016
  • AACR-Bayer Innovation and Discovery Grant Awardee, 2019
  • Kellett Mid-Career Award, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 2019
  • AAAS Fellow, 2022


  1. Donahue K., Xie, H., Li, M., Gao, A., Ma, M., Wang, Y., Tipton, R., Semanik, N., Primeau, T., Li, S., Li, L., Tang, W., Xu, W. (2022) Diptoindonesin G is a middle domain HSP90 modulator for cancer treatment, Journal of Biological Chemistry, Nov 14; 102700. This article is selected as ‘Editors’ pick’ and will be featured in JBC. PMID: 36395883
  2. Chan N. T., Lee, M, S., Wang, Y., Galipeau J., Li, W.J., Xu, W. (2022) CTR9 drives osteochondral lineage differentiation of human mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) via epigenetic regulation of BMP-2 signaling, Science Advances, Nov 18; 8(46):eadc9222. PMID: 36383652
  3. Chan N. T., Huang, J., Ma, G., Zeng, H., Donahue, K., Wang, Y., Li, L. and Xu, W. (2022) The transcriptional elongation factor CTR9 demarcates PRC2-mediated H3K27me3 domains by altering PRC2 subtype equilibrium, Nucleic Acid Research, 50: 1969-1992
  4. Mao F., Kong, Y., Liu J., Rao X., Li, C., Donahue, K., Zhang, Y., Jones, K., Zhang, Q., Xu, W., Liu, X. (2022) Diptoindonesin G antagonizes AR signaling and enhances the efficacy of anti-androgen therapy in prostate cancer, The Prostate, 2022: 1-16
  5. Kim E.J., Liu, P., Zhang, S., Wang, Y., Schehr, J., Wolfe, S., Dickerson, A., Donahue, K., Lu, L., Rui, L.X., Zhong, X., Wisinski, K., Yu, M., Suzuki, A., Lang, J.M., Ong, I., Xu, W. (2021) BAF155 methylation drives triple-negative breast cancer metastasis by hijacking super-enhancers and subverting anti-tumor immunity, Nucleic Acid Research, 49 (21): 12211-12233. PMID: 34865122
  1. You, X., Liu, F., Binder, M., Vedder, A., Lasho, T., Wen, Z., Gao, X., Flietner, E., Rajagopalan, A., Zhou, Y.,  Finke, C., Mangaonkar, A., Liao, R., Kong, G., Ranheim, E. A., Droin, N., Hunter, A. M., Nikolaev, S.,    Balasis, M., Abdel-Wahab, O., Levine, R. L., Will, B., Nadiminti, K. V. G., Yang, D., Geissler, K., Solary,   E., Xu, W., Padron, E.*, Patnaik, M. M.*, Zhang, J.* Asxl1 loss cooperates with oncogenic Nras in mice to reprogram immune microenvironment and drive leukemic transformation *corresponding authors. Blood, 2021, Oct 26. Blood.2021012519. PMID: 34699595
  1. Liu F., Ma, M., Ma, F., Liu, P., Jia, C., Wang, Y., Zhang, S., Ong, I., Keles, S., Li, L., Xu, W. (2021) PKM2-TMEM33 axis controls SCAP stability and lipid homeostasis in cancer. EMBO J. Sept. 6; e108065. PMID: 34487377
  2. Zhang S., Liu F., Halfmann P., Behrens R. T., Liu, P., Ong I., Donahue K., Wang, Y., Kawaoka, Y., Sherer, N., Xu, W. (2021) Mediator complex subunit 12 is a gatekeeper of SARS-CoV-2 infection in triple-negative breast cancer cells. Genes & Disease, Aug. 17. PMID: 34423104
  3. Huang T., Yang, Y., Song, X., Wan, X., Wu, B., Sastry, N., Horbinski C., Zeng, C., Tiek, D., Geonka A., Liu, F., Brennan C.W., Kessler, J. A., Stupp, R., Nakano, I., Sulman, E. P., Nishikawa, R., James, C. D., Zhang, W., Xu, W., Hu, B., Cheng, S. (2021) PRMT6 methylation of RCC1 regulates mitosis, tumorigenicity, and radiation response of glioblastoma stem cells. Mol. Cell, 81(6): 1276-1291. PMID: 33539787
  4. Roberts B., Ma, Z., Gao, A., Leisten, E. D., Yin, D., Xu, W., Tang, W. (2020) Two-stage strategy for development of proteolysis targeting chimeras and its application for estrogen receptor degraders, ACS Chem. Biol., 15(6): 1487-1496. PMID: 32255606
  5. Stossi F., Dubrulle J., Dandekar R.D., Mancini M.G., Gu G, Fuqua S.A., Schiff R., Bedford M.T., Xu W., Johansson H.E., Stephan C.C., Mancini M.A., (2020) Estrogen-induced transcription at individual alleles is independent of receptor level and active conformation but can be modulated by coactivators activity. Nucleic Acid Research, 48(4): 1800-1810. PMID: 31930333
  6. Zhang, S., O’Regan, R., Xu, W. (2020) The Emerging role of mediator complex subunit 12 in tumorigenesis and response to chemotherapeutics. Cancer, 126: 939-948. PMID: 31869450
  7. Gao Y., Nihira N. T., Bu X., Chu C., Zhang, J., Kolodziejczyk, A., Fan Y., Chang N., Ma L., Liu J., Wang, D., Dai X., Liu, H., Ono, M., Nakanishi A., Inuzuka H., North B. J., Huang, Y., Sharma S., Geng, Y., Xu, W., Liu X. S., Li, L., Miki Y., Sicinski, P., Freeman G. J., Wei W. (2020) Acetylation-dependent regulation of PD-L1 nuclear translocation dictates the efficacy of anti-PD-1 immunotherapy. Nat. Cell Biol., 22(9): 1064-1075. PMID: 32839551
  8. Cai X., Zhang T., Kim E., Jiang M., Ke W., Wang J., Shi C., Zhang N., Wu H., Li F., dela Seña C., Zheng H., Vivcharuk V., Niu X., Zheng W., Lee J. P., Chen Y., Barsyte D., Szewczyk M., Hajian T., Ibáñez G., Dong A., Dombrovski L., Zhang Z., Deng H., Min J., Arrowsmith C. H., Mazutis L., Leslie C., Shi L., Vedadi M., Brown P. J., Xiang J., Qin L., Xu W and Luo, M. (2019) A Chemical Probe of CARM1 Alters Epigenetic Plasticity Against Breast Cancer Cell Invasion, elife doi: 10.7554/eLife.47110. PMID: 31657716
  9. Zhu F, Guo H, Bates PD, Zhang S., Zhang H, Nomie KJ, Li Y, Lu L, Seibold KR, Wang F, Rumball I, Cameron H., Hoang NM, Yang DT, Xu W, Zhang L, Wang M., Capitini CM, Rui, LX. (2019) PRMT5 is upregulated by B cell receptor signaling and forms a positive feedback loop with PI3K/AKT in lymphoma cells. Leukemia, doi: 10.1038/s41375-01900489-6. PMID: 31123343
  10. Ma, F., Liu, F., Xu, W.*, Li, L.* (2018) Surfactant and chaotropic agent assisted sequential extraction/on-pellet digestion (SCAD) for enhanced proteomics. Journal of Proteome Research, 17(8): 2744-2754. * co-corresponding authors. PMID: 29923408.
  11. You, J., Dooley, M.S., Kim, C., Kim, E., Xu, W., Goodman, C.A., Hornberger, T. A. (2018) A DGKζ-FoxO-ubiquitin proteolytic axis controls fiber size during skeletal muscle remodelling. Science Signaling, 11(530). pli: eaao6847. PMID: 29764991.
  12. Chen, Z., Yu, Q., Hao, L., Liu, F.B., Johnson, J., Tian, Z., Kao, J., Xu, W.* and Li, L. *(2018) Site-Specific characterization and quantitation of N-glycopeptides in PKM2 knockout breast cancer cells using DiLeu isobaric tags enabled by electron-transfer/high-energy collision dissociation (EThcD), Analyst, 143(11):2508-2519. PMID: 29687791. * co-corresponding authors. PMID: 29687791.
  13. Coriano, C., Liu, F., Sievers, C., Liang, M., Wang, Y., Lim, Y., Yu, M., and Xu, W. (2018) A computational based approach to identify estrogen receptor alpha/beta heterodimer selective ligands, Pharmacology, 93: 197-207. PMID: 29295894.
  14. Wang Q, Jiang J, Ying G, Xie XQ, Zhang X, Xu W, Zhang X, Song E, Bu H, Ping YF, Yao XH, Wang B, Xu S, Yan ZX, Tai Y, Hu B, Qi X, Wang YX, He ZC, Wang Y, Wang JM, Cui YH, Chen F, Meng K, Wang Z, Bian XW. (2018) Tamoxifen enhances stemness and promotes metastasis of ERα36(+) breast cancer by upregulating ALDH1A1 in cancer cells. Cell Res. 28(3):336-358.
  15. Liu F.B., Ma F., Wang Y., Hao L., Zeng, H., Jia, C., Liu, P., Ong, I., Li, B., Chen G., Jiang, J., Wang, Y., Gong, S., Li, L., and Xu, W. (2017) PKM2 methylation by CARM1 activates aerobic glycolysis to promote tumorigenesis, Nature Cell Biology, 19: 1358-1370.
    1. This article was highlighted in UW School of Medicine and Public Health Newsletter:
    2. https://news.wisc.edu/new-study-shows-how-cells-can-be-led-down-non-cancer-path/
  16. Wang, Y., Wang, Y., Chen, G., Li, Y., Xu, W.* and Gong, S. (2017) Quantum dot-based theranostic micelles conjugated with an anti-EGFR nanobody for triple-negative breast cancer therapy, ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, 9: 30297-30305. * co-corresponding author. PMID 28845963
  17. Shishkova E., Zeng, H., Liu, F.B., Coon, J., Xu, W. (2017) Global mapping of CARM1 substrates defines enzyme specificity and substrate recognition, Nature Comm., 8: 15571. PMID: 28537268
    1. This article was highlighted in UW School of Medicine and Public Health Newsletter:
    2. http://www.med.wisc.edu/news-events/study-sheds-light-on-function-of-protein-associated-with-high-risk-breast-cancers/50956
  18. Zeng, H., Lu, Li, Chan, N.T., Hoswill, M., Ahlquist, P., Zhong, X. and Xu, W. (2016) Systematic identification of Ctr9 regulome in ERα-positive breast cancer, BMC Genomics, 17: 902.
  19. Liu, J-T., Do, T. J., Simmons, C. J., Lynch, J. C., Gu, W., Ma Z-X, Xu, W., Tang, W. (2016) Total synthesis of diptoindonesin G and its analogues as selective modulators of estrogen receptors. Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry, 14(38):8927-8930.
  20. Brinkman, A., Chen, G., Wang, Y., Hedman, C.J., Sherer, N., Havighurst, T.C. and Xu, W. (2016) Aminoflavone-loaded EGFR-targeted unimolecular micelle nanoparticles exhibit anti-cancer effects in triple-negative breast cancer, Biomaterials, 101: 20-31.
  21. Wisinski, K., Xu, W., Tevaarwerk, A., Saha, S., Kim, K., Traynor, A., Dietrich, L., Hegeman, R., Patel, D., Blank, J., Harter, J., Burkard, M. (2016) Targeting ERβ in a Phase II study of high dose estradiol in metastatic triple negative breast cancer: a Wisconsin Oncology Network Study, Clinical Breast Cancer, pii: S1526-8209 (16)30080-5.
  22. Zeng, H. and Xu, W. (2016) Gene expression profiling of Ctr9-regulated transcriptome in ERα-positive breast cancer. Genomics data, 7: 103-104.
  23. Zhao, Z., Wang, L., James, T., Jung, Y., Kim, I., Tan, R., Hoffmann, M. and Xu, W. (2015) Reciprocal regulation of ERα and ERβ stability and activity by Diptoindonesin G. Chemistry & Biology, 22: 1-14.
    1. This article was highlighted in UW School of Medicine and Public Health Newsletter:
    2. http://www.med.wisc.edu/news-events/plant-natural-product-helps-limit-growth-of-breast-cancer/47249
    3. https://sciencetrends.com/scientists-discover-natural-plant-product-combats-endocrine-resistance-breast-cancer/
  24. Zeng, H. and Xu, W. (2015) Ctr9, a key subunit of PAFc, affects global estrogen signalling and drives ERα -positive breast tumorigenesis. Genes & Development, 29: 2153-67.
    1. This study was broadcasted on the Wisconsin Public Radio. http://www.wpr.org/uw-research-looks-make-breast-cancer-treatment-more-effective
    2. This article was also highlighted in UW School of Medicine and Public Health Newsletter: http://www.med.wisc.edu/news-events/uw-carbone-researchers-discover-how-breast-cancer-resists-treatment/46932
  25. Wang, L., Zeng, H., Wang, Q., Zhao, Z., Boyer T. G., Bian, X., and Xu, W. (2015) MED12 methylation by CARM1 sensitizes human breast cancer cells to chemotherapy drugs. Science Advances, 1: e1500463.
    1. This article was highlighted in UW School of Medicine and Public Health Newsletter:
    2. http://www.med.wisc.edu/news-events/biomarkers-for-chemo-resistance-could-lead-to-better-breast-cancer-treatments/46731
  26. Xu, D., Zhan Y., Cao, B., Bai, S., Xu, W., Gambhir SS, Lee P., Sartor O., Flemington EK, Zhang H., Hu CD, Dong, Y. (2015) Androgen receptor splice variants dimerize to transactivate target genes. Cancer Research, 75: 3663-71.
  27. Shanle E., Onitilo A.A., Huang, W., Kim, K. M., Zang, C., Engel, J., Xu, W., and Wisinski, K. B. (2015) Prognostic significance of full-length estrogen receptor beta expression in Stage I-III triple negative breast cancer. Am J Transl Res, 7: 1246-59.
  28. Shlensky, D., Mirrielees, J. A., Zhao, Z., Wang, L., Mahajan, A., Yu, M., Sherer, N. M., Wilke, L. G., and Xu, W.  Differential CARM1 Isoform Expression in Subcellular Compartments and Among Malignant and Benign Breast Tumors.  PLoS One10(6): e0128143, 2015.
  29. Charoensuksai, P., Kuhn, P., Wang, L., Sherer, N., Xu, W. (2015) O-GlcNAcylation of co-activator-associated protein arginine methyltransferase 1 regulates its substrate specificity. Biochem J. 466(3): 587-99.
  30. Zhao, Z., Wang, L., Xu, W. (2015) IL-13Ra2 mediates PNR-induced migration and metastasis in ERa-negative breast cancer. Oncogene, 34(12): 1596-1607.
  31. Brinkman, A.M., Wu, J., Ersland K., Xu, W. (2014) Estrogen receptor a and aryl hydrocarbon receptor independent growth inhibitory effects of aminoflavone in breast cancer cells. BMC Cancer, 14(1): 344.
  32. Gao, J., Sabat, G., Valdivia, H., Xu, W., Shi, N. (2014) Disrupting KATP channels diminishes the estrogen-mediated protection in female hearts against ischemia. Clinical Proteomics, 11(1): 19.
  33. Wang, L., Zhao, Z., Meyer, M. B., Saha, S., Yu, M., Guo, A., Wisinski, K. B., Huang, W., Cai, W., Pike, J. W., Yuan, M., Ahlquist, P., Xu, W. (2014) CARM1 methylates chromatin remodeling factor BAF155 to enhance tumor progression and metastasis. Cancer Cell, 25: 1-16.
  34. Zhao, Z., Wang, L., Wen, Z., Ayaz-guner S., Wang, Y., Ahlquist, P., Xu, W. (2013) Systematic analysis of the cytotoxic effects of compound 11a, a putative synthetic agonist of photoreceptor-specific nuclear receptor (PNR), in cancer cell lines. PLOS ONE, 8(9): e75198.
  35. Shanle, E., Zhao, Z., Hawse, J., Wisinski, K., Keles, S., Yuan, M., Xu, W. (2013) Global identification of estrogen receptor beta target genes in triple negative breast cancer cells. Molecular Endocrinology, 27(10): 1762-1775.
  36. Wang L., Charoensuksai P., Watson N., Wang X., Zhao Z., Coriano C. G., Kerr L., Xu W., (2013) CARM1 automethylation is controlled at the level of alternative splicing, Nucleic Acid Research, 41(14): 6870-6880.
  37. H., Wu, J., Bedford M. T., Sbardella G., Hoffmann, F. M., Bi K., Xu, W., (2013) TR-FRET based functional assay for screening activators of a protein methyltransferase, ChemBioChem, 14(7): 827-35 * selected as cover for April issue 7 of ChemBioChem.
  38. Sievers, C.K., Shanle, E., Bradfield, C. and Xu, W. (2013) Differential action of monohydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons with estrogen receptors alpha and beta, Toxicological Science132(2): 359-367.
  39. James G. Yarger, Robert E. Babine, Michael Bittner, Erin Shanle, Xu, W., Hershberger P., Nye. S.H. (2013) Structurally similar estrogen analogs uniquely alter the regulation of intracellular signalling pathways. Molecular Endocrinology50(1):  43-57.
  40. Wu, J. and Xu, W. (2012) Histone H3R17me2a mark recruits human PAF complex to activate transcription. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 109: 5675-80.
  41. Powell, E., Shanle, E., Brinkman, A., Li J., Keles, S., Wisinski K.B., Huang, W., Xu, W. (2012) Identification of estrogen receptor α/β heterodimer selective ligands reveals growth-inhibitory effects on cells co-expressing ERα and ERβ. Plos One7(2):
  42. Wen, Z., Pyeon, D., Wang, Y., Lambert, P., Xu, W.*, and Ahlquist, P*. (2012) Orphan nuclear receptor PNR/NR2E3 stimulates p53 functions by enhancing p53 acetylation. Cell. Biol., 32: 26-35. * co-corresponding author.
  43. Shanle E., Hawse J., Xu, W. (2011) Generation of stable reporter breast cancer cell lines for the identification of ER subtype selective ligands. Biochemical Pharmacology, 82:1940-1949.
  44. Al-Dhaheri, M., Wu, J., Skliris, G. P., Li, J., Higashimato, K., Wang, Y., White, K. P., Lambert, P., Zhu, Y., Murphy, L., and Xu, W.(2011) CARM1 Is an Important Determinant of ERα-Dependent Breast Cancer Cell Differentiation and Proliferation in Breast Cancer Cells.  Cancer Res., 71: 2118-2128.
  45. Chumanov R., Kuhn, P., Xu, W., Burgess, R. (2011) Expression and purification of full-length CARM1 from transiently transfected HEK293T cells using Halo-Tag. Protein Expression and Purification, 76 (2): 145-153.
  46. Kuhn, P., Chumanov, R., Wang, Y., Burgess R. R., Xu, W. (2011) Automethylation of CARM1 allows coupling of transcription and mRNA splicing. Nucleic Acid Research, 39(7): 2717-26.
  47. Yang, Y., Espejo A., Wu, J., Xu, W., Lu, Y., Liang, S., and Bedford M. (2010) TDRD3 is an effector molecule for arginine methylated histone Marks. Molecular Cell, 40: 1016-1023.
  48. Huang, S. X., Powell, E., Rajski, S.R., Zhao, L., Jiang, C., Duan, Y., Xu, W., Shen, B. (2010) Discovery and total synthesis of a novel estrogen receptor heterodimerizing actinopolymorphol A from Actinopolymorpha rutilus. Organic Letters12: 3525-3527.
  49. Charoensuksai, P. and Xu, W. (2010) PPARs and the biological clock: reciprocal regulation and role in energy homeostatis. PPAR research, Vol. 2010, Article ID 243643.
  50. Shanle, E., Xu, W. (2010) Selectively targeting estrogen receptors for cancer treatment. Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews, 62(13):1265-76.
  51. Shanle, E., Xu, W. (2011) Endocrine disrupting chemicals targeting estrogen receptor signalling: Identification and mechanisms of action. Chemical Toxicology Research24:  6-19. * selected as cover for January 2011 issue of Chemical Research of Toxicology
  52. Powell, E., Huang, S. X., Xu, Y., Rajski, S. R., Wang, Y., Peters, N., Guo, S., Xu, E., Hoffmann, M., Shen, B., and Xu, W. (2010) Identification and Characterization of a Novel Estrogenic Ligand Actinopolymorphol A. Biochemical Pharmacology, 80:1221-1229.
  53. Powell E., Wang Y., Shapiro D.J., Xu, W. (2010) Differential requirements of Hsp90 and DNA for the formation of estrogen receptor homodimers and heterodimers. Biological Chemistry, 285: 16125-16134. F1000 Cell Biology recommended article by Len Neckers and Mehdi Mollapour, NCI
  54. Kuhn, P., Xu, Q., Cline, E., Zhang, D., Ge, Y. and Xu, W. (2009) Delineating Anapheles Gambiae Coactivator Associated Arginine Methyltransferase 1 (AgCARM1) Automethylation Using Top-Down High Resolution Tandem Mass Spectrometry. Protein Science, 18: 1272-1280.
  55. Nofsinger, R. R., Li, P., Hong, S.-H., Jonker, J. W., Barish, G. D., Ying, H., Cheng, S.-y., LeBlanc, M., Xu, W., Pei, L., Kang, Y.-J., Nelson, M., Downes, M., Yu, R. T., Olefsky, J. M., Lee, C.-H., and Evans, R. M. (2008) SMRT Repression of Nuclear Receptors Controls the Adipogenic Set Point and Metabolic Homeostasis.  Natl. Acad. Sci. USA105:  20021-20026.
  56. Powell E., Xu, W. (2008) Intermolecular interactions identify ligand-selective activity of estrogen receptor a/b Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., USA10519012-19017.
  57. Zhu, Y., Zhu, Y., Xu, W. (2008) EzArray: a web-based highly automated Affymetrix expression array data management and analysis system BMC Bioinformatics, 9:46.
  58. Higashimoto, K., Kuhn, P., Desai, D., Cheng, X., and Xu, W. (2007) Phosphorylation-mediated Inactivation of Coactivator-associated Arginine Methyltransferase 1.  Natl. Acad. Sci., USA10412318-12323.
  59. Powell, E., Kuhn, P. and Xu, W. (2007) Nuclear Receptor Cofactors in PPARg-Mediated Adipogenesis and Adipocyte Energy Metabolism PPAR research, Article 53843
  60. Yao, T, Song, L, Xu, W., DeMartino G. N., Florens, L., Swanson, S.K., Washburn, M.P., Conaway, R.C., Conaway, J.W., and Robert E. Cohen (2006) Proteasome recruitment and activation of the Uch37 deubiquitinating enzyme by Adrm1. Nature Cell Biology, 8 (9): 994-1002.
  61. Xu, W. (2005) Nuclear receptor coactivators: the keys to unlock chromatin. Biochemistry and Cell Biology 83: 1-11.
  62. Xu, W., Cho, H., Kadam, S., Banayo, E., Anderson, S., Yates III, J. R., Emerson, B. M. and Evans, R. M. (2004) A Methylation-mediator complex unifies two nuclear hormone signalling pathways. Genes & Development 18: 144-156.
  63. Louie, M. C., Yang, H. Q., Ma, A. H., Xu, W., Zou, J. X., Kung, H. J. and Chen, H. W. (2003) Androgen-induced recruitment of RNA polymerase II to a nuclear receptor- p160 coactivator complex. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci.,, 100 (5): 2226-2230.
  64. Xu, W., Cho, H. and Evans, R. M. (2003) Acetylation and methylation in nuclear receptor gene activation. Methods in Enzymology, 364: 205-223.
  65. Demarest, S. J., Martinez-Yamout, M., Chung, J., Chen, H., Xu, W., Dyson, H. J., Evans, R. M. and Wright, P. E. (2002)  Mutual synergistic folding in recruitment of CBP/p300 by p160 nuclear receptor coactivators. Nature, 415: 549-553.
  66. Xu, W., Chen, H., Du, K., Asahara, H., Tini, M., Emerson, B. M., Montminy, M. and Evans, R. M. (2001) A transcriptional switch mediated by cofactor methylation. Science, 294: 2507-2511.
  67. Lam, Y.A., Xu, W., DeMartino, G., and Cohen, R. E. (1997) Editing of ubiquitin conjugates by an isopeptidase in the 26S proteasome, Nature 385: 737-740
  68. Xu, W., Shen, X., Tang, L. X., Zhang, J. (1994) Study on the reaction of ferryl radical with linoleic acid,  Acta Biophysica Sinica 10 (3), 507-512.
  69. Xu, W., Shen, X., Tang, L. X., and Li, X. Y. (1994) Direct observation of the ferryl radical,  Acta Biophysica Sinica 10 (2), 312-316.