Errors in cell division can cause cancer. Here, chromosomes in blue are being pulled in the wrong directions by the microtubules in red which will result in aneuploidy. Photo by Ryan A. Denu of the UW Carbone Cancer Center and the National Cancer Institute
Dr. Aussie Suzuki is studying the fundamental mechanisms of cell division to better understand how cancer develops from aneuploidy, a deadly error in the dividing process. UW News covers how he and Dr. Beth Weaver of McArdle along with Dr. Mark Burkard are paving the way to clarity with technological advances. Read the full article on the UW News website.
Dr. Yongna Xing and Jordan Lang, March 2019 in front of angel’s wings made by patient families.
Jordan’s parents spent years visiting doctors to find out why their baby girl wasn’t meeting developmental milestones. After getting a diagnosis in 2016 by whole-exome sequencing, they began connecting researchers and patient families to collaborate and learn more about their daughter’s genetic mutation, which is now known as Jordan’s Syndrome.
Dr. Yongna Xing is a part of that research team.
The patient families are amazed that all of their kids’ symptoms are caused by a single nucleotide alteration in the PPP2R5D gene, said Xing.
“The mutation leads to a wide range of neurological symptoms, including intellectual disabilities, loss of or reduced verbal skills, autism, mild seizures, and hypotonia, which means that their muscles do not function properly.” she said.
Very few patients get diagnosed because so little is known about the syndrome, and molecular diagnosis by whole-exome sequencing is not widely used. Jordan wasn’t diagnosed until she was 9 years old after a whole exome sequencing test. The test allowed doctors to search her whole genome for mutations leading them to the diagnosis that left them with very few answers.
Jordan’s parents started a foundation to do as much as they could to increase resources for their daughter and help other affected families.
The Jordan’s Guardian Angels Foundation connects families affected by Jordan’s Syndrome, raises awareness and research support, and compiles PPP2R5D research from around the world.
Today, the PPP2R5D intellectual disability (ID) mutations have been found in more than 100 children from 21 months to 25 years old in 19 countries across the globe, with more children being diagnosed each month. It is estimated that 250,000 cases are undiagnosed.
“The patient’s family is very motivated, and they are very good at getting experts together,” said Xing.
Dr. Xing has been conducting multidisciplinary research mainly focused on structural biology, biochemistry, and system biology to understand protein phosphatase 2A regulation and disease mutations.
PP2A is critical for many cellular and physiological functions by the formation of ~100 heterotrimeric holoenzymes that belong to four major families. Multiple types of cancer and diverse neurological disorders are linked to the deregulation of PP2A.
The PP2R5D gene encodes one member of the regulatory subunits in the B’ family, known as B’d, making it an important part of the PP2A system. Her group initiated PPP2R5D research in 2017 under grant support from the Jordan’s Guardian Angels Foundation.
There are 12 different research groups across the United States and Europe that Jordan’s parents connected. All 12 research groups and Jordan’s parents attend bimonthly web meeting to discuss new progress and collaborations.
Jordan’s Guardian Angels Foundation has granted $1 million to the Xing lab since 2017 till 2021. They have raised money by fundraising and received support from the state of California, which works with UC Davis to distribute the grants to the different research groups.
The 12 research groups are studying the mutation from several angles such as stem cell research, animal models, cell biology, biochemistry, structural biology, and clinical work.
“The progress has been exceptional,” said Xing.
There can be several different ID mutations to PPP2R5D. The most common and most severe mutation is E198K and has been identified in the majority of patients with Jordan’s syndrome. More than 10 other PPP2R5D ID mutations have also been identified.
All mutations, except the mildest one that can be inherited, predominantly occur during spermatogenesis. Intriguingly, the same somatic mutations were found in the tumor tissue of cancer patients.
Each variation has similarities and shared symptoms with differences in severity. A deceased patient recently known to have a mild version of Jordan’s syndrome had been misdiagnosed for Parkinson’s disease for 20 years.
Using x-ray crystallography and single particle cryo-electron microscopy, the Xing lab is working to understand the unique conformation and structure of the wild type PP2A- B’d holoenzyme to ultimately understand how ID mutation in PPP2R5D changes the holoenzyme conformation.
“Our preliminary structural modeling suggests that mutations could alter enzyme conformation as well as substrate entry, a hypothesis under testing right now," said Xing.
Building knowledge gained on substrate recognition, Xing’s lab has also built bioinformatic tools to predict PP2A substrates potentially affected by PPP2R5D ID mutations. For example, those in brain tissues such as the hippocampus, caudate nucleus, and cerebellum might contribute to the symptoms in learning, sleep, language, and sensor motor association.
“Built on structural understanding, we are also trying to understand how to restore the conformation of the mutant holoenzyme, and if we do that, hopefully we find a treatment for patients where we can identify small molecules that modulate the holoenzyme conformation,” said Xing.
The collaboration with the other research groups has been advantageous in moving forward with personalized medicine plans, and Dr. Xing is especially motivated by the potential to create effective treatment for the children living with Jordan’s Syndrome.
The foundation laid out a highway for personalized medicine for Jordan’s Syndrome, she said. Any potential therapeutic strategies could be rapidly tested and assessed in animal models and in vitro mini-brain of the disease established by other research groups.
Communicating with patient families and research teams has been exciting. “It is a good example for people to see how what you do in the lab can directly affect clinical practice and personalized medicine,” she said, “and the research on Jordan’s Syndrome also set up a great working model for tackling other phosphatase diseases that the lab research is involved.”
The BESTT team at the UW Carbone's Race for Research. From left to right: Zach Pratt, Quincy Rosemarie, Adityarup Chakravorty, Rebecca Hutcheson, Adriel Taslim, Bill Sugden, Donata Oertel, Nathan Sherer
Dr. Bill Sugden’s lab spent the last month raising money for the Summer Research Institute, a cancer research program for high school students in the Janesville School District. Not afraid to sweat a little for science, members of the Sugden lab and other McArdle researchers signed up for the UW Carbone’s Race for Research as the BESTT (Bridging Education and Science Today for Tomorrow) team.
This summer kicks off the program’s first year. The Summer Research Institute is the brainchild of Dr. Zach Pratt, a graduate student and former researcher at the McArdle Lab.
The race took place this past weekend, and the team was incredibly proud to have met their fundraising goal of $5000, said Rebecca Hutcheson, a graduate student in Sugden’s lab.
“We are thrilled to take part in supporting young, aspiring scientists through our fundraising. This program will be a huge head start for students and an experience many would not have had otherwise,” said Hutcheson.
The BESTT team thanks all who contributed to their fundraising efforts and showed their support.
Read more about the Summer Research Institute and the BESTT team’s fundraising efforts here.
Harold Rusch, MD '33
Many McArdle achievements were highlighted in a piece about the UW Carbone Cancer Center, featured in a recent issue of the School of Medicine and Public Health’s magazine, Quarterly. Mentions include Harold Rusch forming McArdle as the nation’s first cancer research department in 1940 and serving as its inaugural director, and Howard Temin’s Nobel Prize-winning work conducted at McArdle. The full article can be found on Quarterly’s website.
Dr. Bill Sugden (left) and Dr. Zach Pratt (right)
Dr. Bill Sugden and his colleagues pulled together the Bridging Education and Science Today for Tomorrow (BESTT) team to participate in the UW Carbone’s Race for Research 5k this Saturday, June 15. The team is raising money for the Summer Research Institute, a program that will give high school students within the Janesville School District the opportunity to learn about cancer research, bioinformatics, genetics, and how to conduct experiments.
The Summer Research Institute was founded by Dr. Zach Pratt, a graduate student and former researcher at McArdle. This summer marks the genesis of the program.
The students will learn a variety of techniques over the course with a focus on how mutations drive change. Their work will include accessing public databases of genome sequences to evaluate the frequency of certain mutations, such as mutations of the BRCA1 gene which dramatically increase the risk of developing breast cancer.
Helping young people become engaged in real experiments that are the basis of research is extremely important in raising cancer awareness and empowering the next generation to drive research forward, said Sugden.
Many people do not understand what cancer is and how to minimize it, said Sugden. A program like this will help spread awareness about cancer to the people of Wisconsin, helping them to minimize its worst consequences by early diagnosis, he said.
“You can imagine that anything high school students learn, they’re going to tell their parents, and they’re going to distribute it into the community.”
This is important because 1 in 3 people are affected by cancer, so it affects all of us. And, it can be both a scary and life-changing illness, said Sugden.
The lab is working hard to support Pratt’s efforts not only by reaching out to friends and family for donations, but also by hand-making lab equipment that is too expensive for Pratt to obtain for the program in its early stages, said Sugden.
Lab members are designing and building a spectrophotometer for less than $100 of parts from an electronics shop, while it costs thousands of dollars in retail.
“While research funds are competitive and difficult to get, they are still more readily available than support for public education on cancer research. The source of funding for what Zach is doing is harder to come by,” said Sugden.
The program’s efforts remind Rebecca Hutcheson, a graduate student in Sugden’s lab, of her own beginnings in research.
Remembering how excited she was when she was first taught molecular techniques during her undergraduate years, having a high school program like the Summer Research Institute would have put her way ahead, not only in knowledge, but in understanding what research is like, she said.
In addition, Janesville schools have fewer other opportunities for science enrichment in the summer which makes this program even more important, said Hutcheson.
The six members on the BESTT team have raised over $3,500 for the Summer Research Institute over the past month.
The team that raises the most money will be rewarded $5000 from the UW-Carbone Cancer Center to go towards their cause. Of the 70 teams participating, the BESTT team is in second place, only a few hundred dollars behind the leading team which has 35 members.
Anyone can support the BESTT team’s efforts to provide support to cancer research education opportunities online.
This year marks the 11th year of the UW Carbone’s Race for Research 5K. Last year, the race raised over $185,000. It will take place on the Thomas Zimmer Championship Cross Country Course in Verona. Community members can still sign up to run or walk at the event, or arrive at 10:30AM for live music, games, and food to support the cause.
Dr. Wei Xu (front row, third from the right) with her fellow awardees at the AACR Grants Reception and Dinner on April 2, 2019. Photo by © AACR/Matt Herp 2019.
Wei Xu and her laboratory have been awash in a wave of recent successes, receiving multiple funding awards for their investigations into estrogen signaling and breast cancer.
Dr. Xu was recently received a catalyst award from the Dr. Ralph and Marian Falk Medical Research Trust to research potential therapeutic agents for treating endocrine-resistant breast cancers. Many breast cancers are estrogen dependent in their early stages, and hormone therapies that reduce estrogen levels or interfere with estrogen receptor signaling are an important tool for treating breast cancer. However, cancers cells can develop resistance to these therapies over time, necessitating the search for alternative treatment strategies.
The Falk catalyst awards are administered by the Medical Foundation at Health Resources in Action and are structured as one-year awards to support high-risk, high-reward research aimed at tackling major scientific challenges for outstanding investigators. This award will allow Dr. Xu and her laboratory to pursue cutting-edge research into novel and innovative therapies to address a significant and critical health challenge.
The vitality of Dr. Xu’s research into treatments for endocrine-resistant breast cancers was also recently recognized with a prestigious American Association for Cancer Research Bayer Innovation and Discovery Grant of $25,000. Her outstanding contributions were formally celebrated at the AACR Grants Reception and Dinner at the American Association for Cancer Research Annual Meeting.
In addition to this national recognition, Dr. Xu’s successes were also recently recognized by the University of Wisconsin-Madison, which named her a recipient of the Kellet Mid-Career Award. This award comes with $75,000 in research funding over five years and is designed to support faculty between seven- and 20-years post-tenure, during a crucial phase of their careers.
McArdle facutly member Dr. Bill Dove, senior author on the paper.
If caught early, nearly all cases of colon cancer are curable. Though this should make screening tests straightforward, colon cancer screening suffers from a paradoxical combination of low compliance rates and overdiagnosis.
In a study published April 8, 2019, in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, University of Wisconsin–Madison scientists identified four blood-based fingerprints – human protein markers – associated with the pre-cancerous forms of colon cancer that are most likely to develop into disease.
The scientists expect their findings will ultimately lead to a new blood test for the cancer, adding a method to help increase screening rates while reducing overtreatment.
“This study is the first peek at the possibility that there will be blood markers for a minimally-invasive procedure that can reduce over-diagnosis. They do exist,” says senior author Bill Dove, professor of oncology and genetics with the McArdle Laboratory for Research and Carbone Cancer Center at UW–Madison.
The gold standard for colon cancer screening is optical colonoscopy, where patients must complete a day-long prep to empty their bowels before undergoing an invasive procedure – factors that contribute to low screening compliance.
When a doctor finds growths in the colon during the procedure, in most cases, they will remove those polyps and have them analyzed as either cancerous or benign (which are further divided into high or low-risk of becoming cancerous).
Another screening option, computed tomographic colonography, requires a similar bowel prep but provides a non-invasive image of the colon. This method requires a follow-up optical colonoscopy and polyp removal if it reveals an area of concern. In many low-risk cases, physicians will recommend a monitoring approach instead.
In studies of patients undergoing computed tomographic colonoscopy, researchers have found that the majority of small polyps detected during screening will never become cancerous and treating them is unnecessary.
To cut down on over-treatment, the researchers in this study looked for proteins that are elevated in the blood of only those patients who have growing polyps or cancerous polyps but not elevated in patients with non-growing polyps or no polyps at all.
They examined blood samples from 90 optical colonoscopy patients – split into groups of no, low- or high-risk pre-cancerous polyps – and 31 computed tomographic colonography patients who were monitored without polyp removal.
Next, the scientists selected 19 proteins they previously found to be elevated in rodent models of colon cancer and performed a technique known as mass spectrometry to measure protein concentrations in the patients’ blood.
Because they already knew the results of each patients’ colonoscopy, the researchers could correlate patient blood marker findings with their outcomes, allowing them to identify which markers, if any, are specifically associated with growing or cancerous polyps.
Lead study author Melanie Ivancic found four elevated proteins that are associated with early colon cancer in the patients studied.
“There’s good evidence they’re being conserved in early disease in humans,” Dove says. “We didn’t expect we could find blood markers for such small, early, pre-malignant polyps in humans, but we did.”
The group at UW–Madison is just one of many studying ways to improve early detection of colon cancer. Dove notes that others, including Exact Sciences Corporation, also in Madison, have already developed effective, non-invasive screening tests. He views a potential blood-based test as a complement to these others.
“We believe success may come from combining multiple strategies that are statistically independent from each other– called ‘orthogonality,’” Dove says. “Our study reports markers that, though modest in power, may contribute to orthogonal quantitative marker panels to detect the growing pre-malignant adenoma in the colon.”
The project was supported by grants from the National Institutes of Health, the National Cancer Institute and the Wisconsin Alumni Research Foundation.
Author Perry Pickhardt is co-founder of VirtuoCTC, consultant for Bracco and Check-Cap, and shareholder of SHINE, Elucent, and Cellectar. Authors Melanie Ivancic, Perry Pickhardt, Mark Reichelderfer, Michael Sussman and Bill Dove are inventors on patent application PCTUS2015065049 submitted by The Wisconsin Alumni Research Foundation that covers the quantitative proteomic analysis, animal model, and patient resource design described in this report.
This article was originally posted at https://news.wisc.edu/blood-based-screen-for-colon-cancer-shows-promise/
Image on slideshow: (Clockwise from the top left) Dr. Bill Dove and his faculty collaborators on the paper Dr. Perry Pickhardt, Dr. Mike Sussman, and Dr. Mark Reichelderfer
Dr. F. Michael Hoffmann, a co-principal investigator on the UW2020 grant
Anti-cancer drugs, antibiotics or other drugs have always been a key tool at doctors’ disposal for treating patients with a range of diseases. However, the first step in finding molecules that eventually make it to the clinic is both expensive and time-consuming, so anything researchers can do to find newer drugs more quickly and more inexpensively is crucial to developing better therapies.
Dr. F. Michael Hoffmann, a faculty member in the McArdle Laboratory, is among a group of UW-Madison researchers with backgrounds in drug discovery, math, computer science and statistics that have received a UW2020 grant to develop new computational tools to virtually screen compounds, including those that target cancer-driving proteins, looking for the ones that are most promising to begin testing. Using these tools, the researchers are hoping to reduce the cost and scale of early-stage drug discovery.
“We need to find way of making that process more efficient so that it can be available to more academic researchers,” says chemist Scott Wildman, PhD, an associate scientist at the UW Carbone Cancer Center’s Small Molecule Screening Facility. “If we can use the computational tools to reduce that upfront cost, then government funding agencies can get a lot more projects through for the same amount of money.”
Wildman and his colleague, Spencer Ericksen, PhD, interact with researchers from all over campus for both experimental screening and for computational work, looking to find the best machine learning algorithms for drug discovery. The researchers start by inputting lots of experimental data (from real-world, non-virtual screens) and telling the computer which molecules are “hits” and which are not. Then, the computer “learns” how to make predictions based on these confirmed results, and the new models can be used to predict on previously untested small molecules.
For example, in a recent study, SMSF researchers worked with UW Carbone member Anthony Gitter, PhD, and UW SMPH Associate Dean for Basic Research Jim Keck, PhD, to identify small molecules that could potentially disrupt protein interactions important to DNA replication and repair, processes essential to cell division. They first conducted a lab-based screen of 75,000 compounds to identify the subset of compounds that were active in their experiments. Then, they used those experimental results to train models to make predictions on another 25,000 previously untested compounds.
“The hit rate was incredible,” Ericksen said. “We found that our best virtual screening method identified 37 of the 54 experimentally-determined active compounds within the top 250 predictions.”
The researchers are now in the process of using the machine learning algorithm derived from that dataset of 100,000 molecules – 75,000 experimentally tested and 25,000 virtually tested – to predict on 10 million new compounds.
SMSF researchers also compared different machine learning techniques to see if one is better than the others. Previous studies of virtual drug discovery touted the superior capabilities of computationally-heavy “deep” learning techniques, but Ericksen, Wildman and colleagues found a much simpler learning model worked better at predicting hits with Keck’s specific proteins of interest. Whereas a deep learning model requires a large computing cluster, like UW-Madison’s Center for High Throughput Computing, the simpler model could be run on any laptop, meaning that virtual screening methods could be accessible to more researchers than had previously been assumed.
“It’s not always obvious which mathematical model or algorithm you should be using,” Wildman says. “We’re trying to figure out when one of these techniques is going to be better than the other.”
And while the role of artificial intelligence in drug discovery is not going away anytime soon, it will never be the only tool. For example, one problem the scientists are working on is addressing a situation where researchers have a very promising target protein, but little is known about its structure or how small molecules might interact with it. Also, the computers will never completely replace lab verification.
“I think machine learning, deep learning, artificial intelligence in drug discovery will turn out to be a useful tool, but it won’t solve everything,” Wildman says. “These tools make predictions and those predictions still don’t mean anything until we do an actual experiment to show whether it’s real.”
This article was originally published at https://www.uwhealth.org/news/experimenting-with-ai-to-improve-drug-discovery/52478
Chris Bradfield, a UW–Madison Professor of Oncology and faculty member in the McArdle Laboratory for Cancer Research, has been named the new director of the Biotechnology Center. Bradfield had been serving as the center’s interim director since August 2018.
Bradfield will report to the Vice Chancellor for Research and Graduate Education. The Biotechnology Center was founded in 1984 by McArdle Laboratory for Cancer Research emeritus faculty member Richard Burgess, who also served as director for its first 12 years.
“This was an easy decision,” Bradfield says on accepting the director role. “Over 30 years ago, Dick Burgess laid a great foundation for UW–Madison’s Biotechnology Center. Mike Sussman then took the reins and built a technological powerhouse with incredibly talented staff.
“Our job over the next decade will be to stay ahead of the biotechnology curve, improve service and improve turnaround times, so that everyone on our campus and in our state can benefit from what they have built.”
Bradfield, whose research at McArdle centers on a family of transcriptional regulators known as PAS proteins and how they interact with environmental factors to cause disease, has held a number of leadership positions on campus, including director of the Molecular and Environmental Toxicology Center beginning in 2006, director of the Office of Graduate Support for the UW School of Medicine and Public Health since 2013, and formerly interim director of the Wisconsin Institute for Discovery. He received his Ph.D. in toxicology and nutrition from the University of California, Berkeley.
“I’m very thankful to Jon Levine, director of the Wisconsin National Primate Research Center and professor of neuroscience, who led the director search committee,” says Norman Drinkwater, interim vice chancellor for research and graduate education.
“The Biotechnology Center is an important partner and critical resource for many research groups across campus. Dr. Bradfield brings experience working across campus in various leadership and research roles to the director position and is fully committed to the center’s mission as a quality, comprehensive, multidisciplinary biotechnology center that supports, coordinates, disseminates and advances biotechnology.”
To provide the organization and environment necessary to accomplish its mission and goals, the Biotechnology Center is home to several core facilities and services, including the Bioinformatics Resource Center, DNA sequencing, genome editing–animal models, Gene Expression Center, and mass spectrometry.
The center also hosts the popular Wednesday Night at the Lab series, which is held 50 times a year and provides the latest news to statewide audiences from UW–Madison researchers as they describe their investigations and inventions.
This article was originally posted at https://news.wisc.edu/biotechnology-center-welcomes-new-director/
The McArdle Laboratory for Cancer Research is pleased to welcome Dr. Aussie Suzuki as its newest faculty member. Dr. Suzuki’s research uses cutting-edge microscopy techniques to study one of the most fundamental aspects of all cancers: cell division.
Dr. Suzuki and his laboratory are interested in the fundamental molecular mechanisms of chromosome segregation. Proper chromosome segregation is a key component of cell division, allowing for one set of genetic material to be passed down to each daughter cell.
“If you want to study cancer, understanding cell division and chromosome segregation is key to learning how a tumor is established,” says Dr. Suzuki. “Studying cell division is fundamental to studying cancer.”
Dr. Suzuki initially studied pharmacy as an undergraduate in Japan, during which time he participated in research on pharmacokinetics and chronopharmacology. There he investigated how optimizing the timing and sequence of administration of drugs could lead to higher clinical efficacy and reduce side effects.
A particular focus of Dr. Suzuki’s undergraduate research was on the cell cycle inhibitors Irinotecan and Carboplatin, drugs used in cancer therapy that arrest cells at a specific stage of their natural cycle of growth, DNA synthesis, and division to prevent the hyperproliferation required for tumor growth. This early work studying cell cycle inhibitors sparked Dr. Suzuki’s continuing interest in the mechanisms underlying how cells divide. This fascination continued to drive his research focus during his Ph.D. studies at the National Institute of Genetics in Japan, and his postdoctoral work in the laboratories of Dr. Ted Salmon and Dr. Kerry Bloom at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.
“During my undergraduate work, I became very interested in the cell cycle because the most common and universally effective drugs for cancer treatment were cell cycle inhibitors,” says Dr. Suzuki. “Later, as I was working on my Ph.D., I became interested in studying mitosis and chromosome segregation at a more fundamental level.”
As cells divide, they must pass on a copy of their genetic material to each of their two daughter cells. During this process, DNA condenses as chromosomes, which align in the center of the cell. Long protein filaments called microtubules attach to kinetochores, protein complexes in the chromosome’s centromere, and pull the chromosomes apart into two chromatid halves. Each daughter cell will receive one set of chromatids, allowing the amount of DNA in each cell to remain stable over many divisions.
Unfortunately, the process does not always proceed correctly. Improper chromosome segregation gives rise to a range of problems for dividing cells including aneuploidy, an unequal number of chromosomes between daughter cells. A form of genome instability, aneuploidy is implicated in many diseases, including developmental defects and nearly all cancers: approximately 90% of all solid tumors and 50% of blood tumors contain aneuploid cells.
Dr. Suzuki and his laboratory will use advanced light and electron microscopy techniques to study how cells segregate their chromosomes and what factors contribute to proper vs. improper segregation. One promising technique, Fluorescent Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) microscopy, uses fluorophore constructs as biosensors to measure intracellular tensions with high sensitivity at a miniscule scale - on the order of nanometers! This cutting-edge approach will allow Dr. Suzuki’s lab to better characterize forces the cell generates via its kinetochores and microtubules to segregate its chromosomes.
“A major area of interest in cell and molecular biology right now is how mitotic checkpoints are organized, and what trigger satisfies the cell to move past the mitotic checkpoint,” says Dr. Suzuki. “Is the major factor kinetochore-microtubule attachment or tension on the kinetochore? Does microtubule attachment directly provide tension, or are there other important factors? By constructing a very sensitive in vivo tension biosensor, we can now begin to answer these fundamental questions, and this will open doors to addressing many cancer-related questions as well.”
As he finishes setting up his laboratory and hiring his first round of lab technicians and graduate students, Dr. Suzuki is excited by all the possibilities of conducting research at UW-Madison.
“The research community at UW-Madison and the McArdle Laboratory is very supportive and is also a very interactive and collaborative environment, which is the most important reason I wanted to work here,” says Dr. Suzuki. “My research focus is slightly different from many of the other labs at McArdle, but I hope that my strengths in microscopy will not only power my own research, but also help contribute to all of the amazing research being conducted here.”
To learn more about Dr. Suzuki's laboratory and research, please visit his new website: https://aussiesuzuki.oncology.wisc.edu